101 Tips to make a magical Disney World vacation!



For 2015 and 2016 Disney World vacations, these are the best tips and tricks! While there’s a million different opinions out there, who knows what’s current and what’s outdated! Having just come back from another research expedition in Disney World, I’m confident these tips will help you on your Disney World vacation!

In no particular order…
1. Research, research, research! The more you know, the better your trip!

2. If cost is an issue, know when the best deals are. If crowd levels are an issue, know when the lowest crowd times are (hint, they are typically very similar times). Crowd calendar 2015, best times for 2015.

3. Start walking before you go. You can easily log 8-10 miles a day at Disney and while you take breaks, you’ll need to build some endurance. Take some family walks and start to get your legs ready!

4. STAY ON PROPERTY! While it may seem more expensive on the surface, you won’t need to rent a car, get transportation to/from the airport, or pay for parking.

5. Think about using a travel agent. We know how to get the best discounts, when discounts come out, and are actively looking to save you time and money! Plus, we are FREE to work with!!!

6. If you book your Disney vacation before a discount comes out, you will have to call Disney to apply the new discount. It doesn’t get changed automatically. During a big discount, you may be on hold for a very long time!

7. Think about your budget. Now think about adding about 20% more to it to make it a more reasonable number for Disney. You can definitely do Disney on the cheap, but if you’re thinking about cost the whole time, it makes it less fun for the adults!

8. Look into the dining plan and what it includes. See if it’s for you (or how you can get it for free!)

9. Make sure Disney knows about any celebrations during your stay! You’ll get a few freebies and some recognition as well.

10. Children under 3 are free in Disney. If you’re thinking about a vacation before or after your child turns 3, you’ll likely save at least $300 if you go when they’re 2!

11. Similarly, Disney considers 10 year olds Disney adults. That means there’s a price break between 9 and 10. Park tickets don’t make a huge difference, but dining does!

12. Park tickets become cheaper the more days you add (sometimes adding a day of park tickets can be as low as $30 for a family of 3-4). Disney does the math for you when you are booking your package, so check it out!

13. Plan for a day off. Disney can get exhausting. Make sure you take a break during your trip, whether it’s a planned pool day, downtown Disney, or just a day without parks. You won’t get bored!

14. Ask questions! If you’re in Disney and are confused, lost, or need help, cast members (Disney employees) are here to help!

15. Plan at least one table service dinner. Even if you’re not on the dining plan, it’s a good experience!

16. Try new food! You’re on vacation. Don’t be afraid to book a unique restaurant or menu item (especially on the dining plan!)

17. Ask your server for suggestions. They’ll give you a good opinion or at least tell you the most popular menu items.

18. Save room for dessert! There’s some awesome options on all the menus.

19. Explore other resorts. It’s fun to just look around another resort if you’re in the area (think Magic Kingdom and Epcot areas). You don’t need any sort of ticket or pass to walk around in the common areas. It’s fun to look around!

20. Bring sunscreen and wear it! Bring more than you think you need. Nothing like feeling miserable and uncomfortable after one day of vacation! Reapply after pool or water rides.

21. Bring snacks to the park. You can also bring your own water bottles. Anything except glass and alcohol is allowed into the parks! If you have a place to store it or are fine carrying it, you’ll save a ton of money!

22. Bring your own stroller. Sure it’s a pain to lug it through the airport and check it at the gate, but it’s better than $18/day for a single stroller or $31/day for a double stroller!

23. Decorate your stroller so you know it’s yours. Colored ribbon, a sign, etc. will all be helpful. Yes you left it in a certain place, but cast members rearrange strollers for the most capacity. This is especially helpful if you are renting a stroller.

24. Share meals. Share meals! Seriously. For quick service/counter service meals, start with one meal for every 2 people. You can always go back and get another or one or get a snack to share. Don’t throw away the expensive food!!! Look at appetizers and meals to share for table service meals. If you made a reservation and you’re not that hungry, don’t be afraid to share a meal. The only place you can’t share are buffet meals. Via Napoli does not allow sharing on the dining plan, but you can share if paying out of pocket.

25. Bring your refillable mugs to the parks! While you can’t officially refill them, it’s a great way to share one of the large fountain drinks from counter service meals. You can also fill them with water from the water fountains or ask for some free ice water at any counter service (a word of warning that Orlando water doesn’t taste the greatest!)

26. Use Disney transportation. It’s FREE! It adds to the experience of Disney.

27. Know how to get from here to there BEFORE you leave! If you need to make a cheat sheet on your phone or index cards, do it! You’ll save headaches later.

28. Driving to Disney? Parking is free at your resort and all the theme parks if you stay in a Disney resort! Bring a GPS or some directions to get you to the main roads. Once there, Disney signage is great to get you to your destination.

29. Download the My Disney Experience app to your smart phone. You can update reservations on the fly and check for various show times and character meets in the park.

30. Arrive at the parks 30-45 minutes prior to park open. At times the parks open before the posted time. You can get through more of the park in the first 2-3 hours of the day than any other time!

31. Even if you’re tired, wake up for “rope drop” (park opening). You can always take a break later.

32. Take breaks! Whether it’s for lunch inside the park or a nap or some pool time outside of the park. You can’t make it 12-14 hours in the park without a break.

33. Be aware of Extra Magic Hours. Late hours are great to get some more popular attractions out of the way. If you are willing to get up early for morning Magic Hours, make sure you arrive before the park opens, otherwise it’s not worth it.

34. Fall brings some early park closures to the general public. Check the park hours on Disney’s website for days that close early due to special events. You may want to avoid that park. Animal Kingdom also closes earlier during lower crowd levels. Make sure you plan ahead if you have park hopper tickets.

35. Make your FastPass+ reservations at your 60 day window – this is for your entire vacation. This opens at midnight EST. If you want to meet Anna & Elsa, this needs to be done the second the window opens! Make sure your reservations are made at least 30 days in advance as that’s when day guests can make reservations.

36. Take advantage of all your FastPass+ allotments. Even if you aren’t sure, book it!

37. Make your dining reservations as soon as possible. This has become extremely competitive in the last 2-3 years. Resort guests can make reservations 180 days in advance (this is for your entire vacation, not just one day). If you don’t have a resort reservation, you can make reservations 180 days in advance (but you’ll have to do it each day).

38. Check out the FastPass+ bypass for Be Our Guest for lunch.

39. Package reservations must be paid in full at 45 days prior to your arrival. Room only reservations are paid upon arrival.

40. Think about online check in. If you are arriving earlier in the day, make sure Disney knows about it. While it’s no guarantee, the more they know, the better.

41. If you don’t like your room assignment on check in, you can always ask the front desk if there is another available room you can switch to (in a different location on the grounds). The worst they can say is no!

42. Wear good walking shoes! Flip flops are not good walking shoes.

43. Bring an extra pair of shoes in case one gets wet from rain or if you get a blister.

44. Bring first aid supplies. Disney does have first aid at each of their theme parks, however bring some good band aids, blister band aids, and moleskin with you. It’ll save you walking time to get there and making your injuries worse.

45. On days with a threat of rain, pack a pair of sandals or crocs. This is the only time I’ll ever suggest sandals in Disney. EVER. More suggestions on what to do on rainy days.

46. Pack your own ponchos. You’ll save money. Don’t forget a poncho or tarp for your stroller!

47. Pack a ziplock bag or two for cameras and cell phones on rides where you can get wet.

48. Take a photo of where you parked. After a long, hot day, you may not remember. Also take a photo of your rental car’s license plate!

49. Bring an extension cord. There aren’t always enough plugs available or in a nice place.

50. Think about staying closer to the park you’ll be at the most. You’ll save time traveling to and from your resort each day.

51. If pool time is important to you, choose a location with a great pool. You may want to spend a little more money on a moderate or deluxe resort to have a water slide. My favorite pools are at Beach & Yacht Club, Animal Kingdom Lodge, and Coronado Springs. Of the value resorts, Art of Animation and Pop Century have fun pools (but no water slides).

52. Decide if you want to park hop. I think park hopping is beneficial, but it may be too much for young children or your first trip. You will get to see more in less time. Add a park hopper to your tickets and cut down on the number of days of tickets giving you time to take a day off!

53. Explore Downtown Disney. The World of Disney store has everything you could ever want to buy!

54. Stay cool. Drink water, don’t get dehydrated. If you’re feeling ill find a cool indoor show to watch or take a little break in one of the bathrooms.

55. Stop and enjoy your surroundings. Running from one thing to the next isn’t very much fun! Enjoy your surroundings.

56. Don’t try and do too much. Don’t plan every second of every day. Go in with a general plan and be open to change.

57. Know height restrictions for different Disney attractions before you go. They are strict.

58. Don’t make your kids go on something they are afraid of. There’s always another trip another time.

59. Find free stuff in Disney! Sorcerers of the Magic Kingdom gives you free cards. Play the game or just take the cards. It’s a great distraction.

60. Really enjoy each country of World Showcase in Epcot. They are really interesting and intricate.

61. Take family photos with the Disney photographers. Your MagicBands will upload the photos to your account. Even if you don’t purchase them, it’s still fun!

62. If you see a Disney photographer hovering around, it’s likely because a pop up character meet will be on the way. If you want to know, ask! They’ll tell you the information they have.

63. Check out all the evening fireworks/shows. Magic Kingdom, Epcot, and Hollywood Studios each have one and they are all amazing, whether it’s the first or 100th time you’ve seen them.

64. Watch Magic Kingdom’s fireworks from different vantage points: Main Street, Tommorowland Bridge, Polynesian Beach, California Grill (reservations required).

65. Get your spot for parades early. The shady spots go first, so if that’s important, stake your claim!

66. Think about Memory Maker. You’ll be able to put your camera away and have tons of pictures for your return!

67. Customize your MagicBands. It’s so much fun to see the rainbow of colors arrive at your doorstep instead of plain gray ones.

68. Use your MagicBands to their fullest extent. They’re more than just a key to open your door. Pay for anything and everything in Disney World, gain entry to the parks, use your FastPasses, etc. It’s actually really fun!

69. Call Disney if you need more than one room. It’s easier to properly link the reservations and they can book it faster than you could online. While you’re on the phone, ask if there are any PIN codes attached to your account.

70. Start your vacation on Sunday. Friday night and Saturday night stays are the most expensive. Crowds are also highest on a Saturday.

71. Arrive early in the day and leave late in the day. This will allow you the most time. Even if you’re not going to the parks.

72. Magical Express service TO your resort can take up to 90 minutes from your arrival. You’ll likely stop at other resorts on the way to your own. Be patient!

73. Magical Express service FROM your resort typically leaves 3 hours before your flight. Plan your flight accordingly.

74. Be cautious before booking a dining reservation the night you arrive. Flights get delayed, things happen.

75. Try a character meal! Even if you are dining as adults, it’s fun to watch kids faces light up.

76. Don’t yell at your kids. You’re in public and people can hear you!

77. Eat at off peak times. You’ll definitely be able to tell peak lunch and dinner times by the amount the crowds dwindle. If you can take advantage of that, you’ll get more for your time.

78. Did you know the average number of attractions done in a day is 8.5? While it’s definitely possible to do more, don’t have extreme expectations for your visit.

79. Stop and enjoy the cupcakes.

photo 2(2)

80. Study park maps before your arrive to know where you’re going on day one!

81. Grab a daily schedule for the parks on your way in. You’ll know about special events, live shows, and character meets.

82. If you are in line for an attraction before the park closes, you’ll be able to ride or meet a character. A cast member will turn you away if the park is already closed, but you won’t have to leave the line.

83. Disney buses run until the last guest is out of the parks. You won’t get left behind!

84. There’s a place for nursing mothers if you’re taking a very young child to Disney. Ask a cast member for more information.

85. Enjoy attractions more than once. Just because you already did them on this trip, doesn’t mean you can’t do it again, especially if the line is short!

86. Head straight for the headlining attractions/rides first thing in the morning when lines are shortest.

87. Eat a decent breakfast. Even if you plan on enjoying some food at the parks, don’t go on an empty stomach and then get lost in running from ride to ride.

88. Pack some simple breakfast foods in your luggage. Pop Tarts and granola bars are easy grab and go things to get you to the parks early!

89. Think about club level service. Breakfast, snacks, hot and cold appetizers, happy hour drinks for adults, desserts, and after dinner cordials. It won’t be all of your meals, but we were able to keep full throughout our stay. Free bottled water too!

90. Meet at least one character during your trip. I don’t care if it’s kids or adults, it’s still fun!

91. Prepare your kids for the trip: waiting in line, being courteous, using manners, etc.

92. If there are two lines, choose left. 95% of the time that line is shorter!

93. The shops on Main Street in Magic Kingdom are open longer than the park. Shop on your way out after the fireworks show.

94. Get a set of “first ears”!Anna & Elsa - Frozen

95. Enjoy Club Cool in Epcot. Get a free beverage and try the different flavors of Coke around the world!

96. Take a night off and watch a movie at your resort. Don’t like the movie your resort has, check out the other resorts!

97. Try Dole Whip (I prefer the floats!)

98. Sit and enjoy some of the live shows. Don’t feel like it’s a waste of time. They are truly enjoyable and it’s a load off your feet.

99. Pay attention to the details! The different things on Cinderella’s Castle, all the animals in the Tree of Life, etc. It’s truly amazing!

100. Think about a dinner show! Disney has 3 on property and they’ll all really fun! Two credits on the dining plan or a decent out of pocket charge, but it’s a great way to take a nice long break!

101. Learn about Pin Trading and trade with cast members!

Whew! Did I forget anything important?

A free gift for Disney vacation! The amazing and exciting Minnie Box!

A free gift for Disney vacation! The amazing and exciting Minnie Box!

Ready to get started planning your 2015 Disney World vacation? Please contact me at any time for a free quote. The benefits to using an authorized Disney vacation planner include saving time before and during your vacation with itinerary planning which can help save you hours of standing in line each day. Plus you won’t have to watch for available discounts, research resorts, wake up early for dining reservations, or stay up late for FastPasses. The best part about using a travel planner instead of planning yourself? It’s totally FREE! Plus I’ll take away some of the stress and confusion of planning a Disney vacation (especially if it’s your first one!)It’s also a worry free cruise opportunity. I’ll walk through through all of the steps to the process with a few little insider tips along the way! If you already have your vacation planned and are interested in transferring your vacation, ask me how!

Disney World Tips & Tricks for your Magic Kingdom park day

Disney World Tips & Tricks for your Magic Kingdom park day

If you’re like my family, we can’t get enough of  Magic Kingdom. The flagship park in Walt Disney World has so much to offer for kids of all ages. After touring through each of the lands over the last couple of weeks, you know all the available attractions in Adventureland, Frontierland, Liberty Square, Fantasyland, Tomorrowland, and Main Street USA. But now what? Once you walk in the magical gates, what to see first, what to skip? There are paid web sites that can help you with this, but why pay for something you can get for free? I have some basic tips below, plus more information below on how to get your own itinerary planning for free.

1. Get to the park early. Really early. Plan on arriving at least 30 minutes before the park opens. That means an early wake up call, especially if you have a bus ride from your resort. At times the park opens before the 9 am “rope drop”, but if not, you’ll enjoy a real fun opening show!

2. If you have the option to drive or take one of Disney’s buses, TAKE THE BUS. This is the only park that the lot is not in immediate proximity to the park. You’ll have to take a tram or walk to the Ticket and Transportation Center and then get on the monorail. That will add a ton of extra time to to the beginning and end of your day. Instead, hop a free bus and enjoy the ride! You’ll get dropped off right near the entrance!

3. Know the attractions that have long wait times and go there first. Space Mountain and Big Thunder Mountain Railroad for adults and adventurous kids or Enchanted Tales with Belle and Peter Pan’s Flight for younger kids and aspiring princesses are two two choices.

4. Know the layout. Disney spread outs popular attractions around property. If you’re willing to walk in the first hour or two of your day, you’ll cover all the major attractions which have the longest lines before they get unbearable. You may have to wait a short time for the moderate and minor attractions, but 45 minute waits will be behind you!

5. If you want to eat at Be Our Guest, try and snag a Fastpass before you head out. They are different than your regular fast passes. Contact me if you have questions or to see if you qualify!

6. Plan for your FastPass+ around your lunch breaks and the heat of the day. Splash Mountain is perfect after 12 but before the sun goes down. The last 10-15 minutes of wait at Tomorrowland Speedway is completely uncovered from the elements and the fumes from the cars can make for a difficult wait time.

7. Take a break during the heat of the afternoon. Have some lunch or explore one of the nearby resorts along the monorail. Many have both quick service and table service meals.

8. Stake out a location for parades, especially if you have a stroller. Your little one can stay in his/her stroller if you get a front row spot, plus it could be a great time for them to catch a cat nap before the parades start.

Ready to get started planning your 2015 Disney World vacation? Please contact me at any time for a free quote. The benefits to using an authorized Disney vacation planner include saving time before and during your vacation with itinerary planning which can help save you hours of standing in line each day. Plus you won’t have to watch for available discounts, research resorts, wake up early for dining reservations, or stay up late for FastPasses. The best part about using a travel planner instead of planning yourself? It’s totally FREE! Plus I’ll take away some of the stress and confusion of planning a Disney vacation (especially if it’s your first one!)It’s also a worry free cruise opportunity. I’ll walk through through all of the steps to the process with a few little insider tips along the way! If you already have your vacation planned and are interested in transferring your vacation, ask me how!

10 Must do Attractions for your Disney World Vacation

dumboWith so much to see and do at Disney World, priorities are difficult! If you are going for a short trip, it becomes even more difficult. This is also very dependent on your family and the time of year you travel. For example, refurbishment is typically done in January and February and lines are often longer during spring break, summer, and over Christmas break making it more difficult to do as much in a short amount of time. In my opinion, these 10 attractions should be at or near to top of your must do list. In no particular order…

10. Haunted Mansion (Liberty Square, Magic Kingdom). This is must do multiple times on my Disney vacations. The line moves quickly, it’s a fun ride and there’s always something new to notice even after 20+ times being on it. This ride may be a bit scary for younger children, but it’s all in good fun.

9. Dumbo (Fantasyland, Magic Kingdom). This attraction screams Disney World. It’s something shown in every Disney commercial on TV. While it’s not the most exciting ride, it’s something to experience during every trip, especially with little ones.

8. Kilimanjaro Safari (Animal Kingdom). One of the longest attractions on Disney property, this is a different experience every time as live animals roam to 22 acres of Disney property. Keep your camera out, you can get some amazing photos of tons of different animals. This is a nice ride enjoyable for children and adults!

7. Tower of Terror (Hollywood Studios). Let me start by saying this ride TERRIFIES me! I rode it for the first time in 2012 and the idea of riding again scares me a bit. The queue and trip through the hotel is very well done by Disney imagineers. But the screams heard throughout the park are real as no two rides are alike. The drops vary in height and timing. Please note, a height restriction for this ride.

6. Space Mountain (Tomorrowland, Magic Kingdom). This dark ride/roller coaster has been thrilling Disney guests since its inception. Lines are often long, but it’s a fun ride. When I say dark ride, I mean pitch black! You can’t see the track in front of you to see where you’re going. It’s thrilling and scary at the same time. Please note, a height restriction for this ride. Also, for tall folks like me, it’s difficult to squeeze yourself into (your knees are often in your chest).

5. Rock n Roller Coaster (Hollywood Studios). I can’t say anything about my personal experience on this ride because I don’t do well going upside down. My husband loves it! He rides every time we travel. The ride begins going 0 to 60 in about 3 seconds and does have some loops. This ride also has a height restriction. There is also a single rider line for those that have little ones or families like ours who like to enjoy the Florida sun while thrill seekers ride!

4. Test Track (Epcot). The re-imagined Test Track is a fun, interactive ride with a little bit of thrill. Another ride you can hear the screams throughout the park as you get whipped around corners and twist and turn. This exciting ride also has a height restriction as well as a single rider line. Of note, this ride may close during heavy rains as a portion goes outside.

3. Splash Mountain (Frontierland, Magic Kingdom). Yet another attraction you can hear before you can see! Screams going down the almost 60 foot plunge down the end of the ride. You will get wet on this ride! As you are inside the mountain, you follow Brer Rabbit and Brer Fox from Song of the South and enjoy a nice round of Zippity Doo Dah before you going flying down, down, down! This ride also has a height restriction.

2. Toy Story Mania (Hollywood Studios). My favorite thing in all of Disney World. Seriously! It’s one of the most fun attractions. Many people agree with me as it’s typically one of the longest lines in all of Disney. Riders don 3D glasses and go into a virtual midway and shoot at targets to receive points. This is fun for all ages, even if you miss as much as I do! I could easily go again and again and again if my arm didn’t get tired and the line wasn’t so long. Thankfully Disney imagineers have a really fun and exciting queue. This is a 100% absolute must do at least 3-4 times per trip. We’ve got a lofty goal of 8-10 times for our next trip.

1. Soarin’ (Epcot). This ride makes you feel like you are flying! Another attraction with long, long lines and a great use of a FastPass! Taken from Disneyland, this ride flies you over some very recognizable landscapes. Feel the breeze in your face and the sounds and smells of your surroundings. Definitely a must do attraction. Worth a 70 minute standby wait? Maybe. Would I wait that long? Never! Catch it during extra magic hours or at rope drop.

Remember if you want to ride something and you have kids that are either too scared or too short, you can always use the rider swap option!

Honorable mention: Peter Pan’s Flight (Fantasyland, Magic Kingdom), It’s a Small World (Fantasyland, Magic Kingdom), Jungle Cruise (Adventureland, Magic Kingdom), Big Thunder Mountain Railroad (Frontierland, Magic Kingdom), DINOSAUR (Animal Kingdom).

Ready to get started planning your 2015 Disney World vacation? Please contact me at any time for a free quote. The benefits to using an authorized Disney vacation planner include saving time before and during your vacation with itinerary planning which can help save you hours of standing in line each day. Plus you won’t have to watch for available discounts, research resorts, wake up early for dining reservations, or stay up late for FastPasses. The best part about using a travel planner instead of planning yourself? It’s totally FREE! Plus I’ll take away some of the stress and confusion of planning a Disney vacation (especially if it’s your first one!)It’s also a worry free cruise opportunity. I’ll walk through through all of the steps to the process with a few little insider tips along the way! If you already have your vacation planned and are interested in transferring your vacation, ask me how!

Disney World with kids – What rides are too scary?

So it’s your first time to Disney with kids, a whole different ballgame than traveling as a teen or in adulthood. One of the biggest questions during the planning process: what rides are too intense or too scary for my kids? My response is usually the same: it depends on your kids! Age is but a number in my eyes. Thinking back to my childhood, I was a scared-y cat. My cousin, on the other hand, was a dare devil. Five years younger than me, we both rode our first roller coaster in the same year. This is one of the basic differences I try and point out when parents ask questions about the intensity of a ride. Other rides are “scary” because of noise and not necessarily because of speed or intensity.

Here are my favorite resources to help you decide what is best for your child:

Unofficial Guide to Walt Disney World. This isn’t the first time I’ve mentioned this amazing book. I use this determine all the rides that have a “scare factor” the age groups that might consider it too intense. Some of their commentary was an eye opener for me! Something I never thought to be scary, like Mickey’s Philharmagic could be scary for young kids based on noise alone!

YouTube. Once you have you questionable rides, I suggest heading over to YouTube to check out the ride for yourself. I actually reviewed this as an adult going back to Disney for the first time. My thrill seeking husband wanted to try everything and I was a bit hesitant. It gave me a great perspective on each ride and what I thought I was able to handle. For the record, I did well on everything except Tower of Terror which was suitably named in my opinion. If you can find the Touring Plans YouTube page. They have many “Point of View” videos showing that it’s actually like to be on the ride. If you’re unsure if your little ones can handle it, have them watch it and see what they think!

For the big adults that still want their thrills at Disney, make sure you are aware of the Rider Switch option. This is available for parents with children that don’t want to ride or are too small to ride. As you get up to the front of the line, let the cast member assigning your placement in the car/vehicle/seat/etc. that you would like to take advantage of the Rider Switch option. This allows one parent to ride while the other stays with the non-riding child. After the ride, the parents swap places and the other is allowed to ride. This option is available for:

Magic Kingdom:

  • Big Thunder Mountain Railroad
  • Splash Mountain
  • The Barnstormer
  • Space Mountain
  • Stitch’s Great Escape
  • Tomorrowland Indy Speedway


  • Mission: SPACE
  • Soarin’
  • Test Track

Hollywood Studios:

  • Rock ‘n’ Roller Coaster
  • Star Tours ®
  • Twilight Zone Tower of Terror

Animal Kingdom:

  • Expedition Everest
  • Kali River Rapids
  • Primeval Whirl

Use this list as a starting point to see what is too much for your kids to handle. If you don’t remember the ride, don’t know the ride or need a refresher, head over to YouTube!  As a note, some of these have the rider switch because of height minimums and not for scare factor!

What other attractions do you think should be added to this list? Any you think should be removed?